The shamans had heard everything. But what are these “servants of the spirits? On this account. Many researchers believe shamanism is a special version of the religion that preceded the monotheistic religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Islam), is partly formed on its basis. Other researchers see the shamanism rather spontaneously-a natural phenomenon that is largely determined by the characteristics and condition of the human psyche. In any case, from ancient times until now shamans are carriers of supernatural powers, clairvoyants, protectors of the people.
First of all a broad, though not unlimited proliferation of shamanic practices.
The shamanism practiced by the indigenous peoples of Siberia, the Urals, North. Under the name of naidov shamans existed among the Lapps, the Finns, they disappeared somewhere in the XI century the Hungarians taltos existed up to XVIII century the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz shamans call or Bakshi bakhshi — gifted arcane power and knowledge of a doctor, a poet and musician in one person. To Siberian shamans close to the forms of its activities, the Gypsy shaman-Cavali. In Turkey, there is the clan of the dancing dervishes-sufiev — Bektashi, mysteries and rituals are very similar to shamanic.
According to authoritative researchers, all of these forms, including the Siberian, date back to the ancient cult of Mitra, who was brought to Central Asia from the ancient world in the form of a little known religion “Bon”, which blended elements of Mithraism and Zoroastrianism starojanska. From Bon shamanistic element has penetrated into the cults of Tibet, Bhutan, Sikkim, Inner Mongolia. Wu Chinese, Malay is ANS, eskimo angakok, Georgian kadags, sibasa from Sumatra are the incarnation of the shaman. Something similar to shamanism exists in tribal Australia, South Africa and America.
One of the most remarkable properties shamanic methods — their similarities all over the world. For example, in Australia, North and South America, Siberia and Central Asia, Eastern and Northern Europe, South Africa, shamanic methods, in fact, identical. The same methods were known in the ancient cultures of the Mediterranean. Witches of medieval Europe, under the yoke of the Inquisition, also practiced the same methods.
One of the modern anthropologists said: “Wherever shamanism meet in our day — whether in Asia, Australia, Africa or America, the shaman is acting the same way and with similar equipment, — as guardian of the psychic and ecological equilibrium of the tribe and its members, as an intermediary between the visible and invisible worlds, as the host of spirits, as supernatural healer, etc.
The shaman is able to ascend above the human condition and pass freely back and forth through the different space. ”
A well-known researcher of culture of the peoples of the North Sternberg believed: “the Talent of a shaman is not a gift but a burden”. In the shamanic genealogies noticeable as a tendency to the destruction of the kind chosen was not given in vain. The art of the shaman has never been hereditary in the truest sense of the word, but it had a “generic distribution”. Was considered even that great (the most strong) a shaman may only be someone in the family had at least 10 of the shaman predecessors, who became the spirits-patrons to the newly elected.
Shamanic abilities have both men and women. However, in many societies women have so many doing the housework and child care that they just do not have the time to become shamans. In such societies shamans are usually men. For example, the tribe of hivaro women are busy cooking, raising children and gardening. And when the children grow up, women hivaro sometimes become shamans and quite powerful.
In the Middle ages women, particularly older widows often became the sorceress. The Inquisition called them “witches”, as many missionaries are still called shamans “witches”.
Generally the female element in the witchcraft plays a significant role. Shamans often wore women’s dress.
Shamans usually wear a long hair brush and your hair in a feminine way. There is even a belief that the shaman is a man able to give birth on a par with women (though he gives birth to children and animals-puppies, ducklings, fish, etc.). The entire course witchcraft is lobstrosity character: the songs are entirely studded with allusions and comparisons, borrowed from the field of sex items, present dancing in obscene gestures and movements. Many shamans are hermaphroditic, i.e., bisexual. There are shamans who prefer same-sex love. The mind of the shaman cannot be considered normal.