Angina: stress and rest, stable and unstable — symptoms, treatment
One of the most common clinical manifestations of IHD (ischemic heart disease) is angina. It is also called “angina pectoris”, although this definition of the disease in recent times is very rare.
The name is associated with symptoms that manifest in the feeling of pressure or compression (narrow — stenos from GK.), burning sensation in the heart region (kardia), behind the sternum, passing in pain .
In most cases the pain comes on suddenly. In some people the symptoms of angina pronounced in stressful situations, others during the surge when performing heavy physical work or sport activities. Third, the attacks forced to Wake up during the night. Most often, this is due to the stuffiness in the room or too low ambient temperature, high blood pressure. In some cases, the attack occurs with overeating (especially at night).
Duration of pain – no more than 15 minutes. But they can give in the forearm, scapula, neck and even jaw. Often angina is manifested by unpleasant sensations in the epigastric region, for example, heaviness in stomach, stomach cramps, nausea, heartburn. In most cases, painful sensations are, once a person comes off emotionalmotivational, if during a walk he will stop, take a break in the work. But sometimes to stop the attack requires reception of a group of drugs nitrates with a short action (tablet of nitroglycerin under the tongue).
There are many cases when symptoms of angina appear only in the form of discomfort in the stomach or headaches. In this case, the diagnosis of the disease causes certain difficulties. It is also necessary to distinguish pain angina from the symptoms of myocardial infarction. They are of short duration and are easily removed by taking nitroglycerin or Nigeria. At the time, as pain in heart attack this drug is not stopped. In addition, in angina there is no stagnation in the lungs and shortness of breath, body temperature remains normal, the patient does not experience arousal during the attack.
Often the disease is accompanied by cardiac arrhythmia. Outward signs of angina and heart arrhythmia are shown in the following:
The pale skin of the face (in atypical cases observed redness);
On his forehead drops of cold sweat;
On face expression of suffering;
Hands – cold, with loss of sensation in the fingers;
Breathing is superficial, rare;
The pulse at the beginning of the attack is frequent, by the end of its frequency decreases.
The most common causes of this disease are atherosclerosis coronary vessels, and hypertension . It is believed that the appearance of angina caused by decreased oxygen supply of the coronary vessels and heart muscle that occurs when blood flow to the heart does not match his needs. This causes myocardial ischemia, which, in turn, contributes to a violation of processes of oxidation and the appearance of excess metabolism products. Often heart muscle requires an increased amount of oxygen in severe left ventricular hypertrophy. The reason for this are diseases such as dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. aortic regurgitation. stenosis of the aortic valve .
Very rarely (but such cases were observed), angina of the heart occurs against a background of infectious and allergic diseases.
The course of disease and prognosis
This disease is characterized by a chronic course. Seizures can be repeated when performing heavy work. Often they occur when a person is just beginning the movement (walk), especially in cold and wet weather, in stifling summer days. Prone to angina emotional, mentally unstable people are exposed to frequent stresses. There were cases, when the first stroke resulted in death. In General, when properly selected treatment, adherence to medical recommendations, prognosis is favorable.
Conservative methods of treatment, including medicinal (medical) and non-drug therapy;