The history of the use of medicinal herbs goes to an incredible distance. People are using medicinal herbs in food has noticed the impact on them some herbs, made conclusions about the properties of plants and accumulated knowledge bit by bit, for generations treasured. All ancient medicine for centuries used medicinal herbs.
The oldest, the scientists found during archaeological excavations the manual refers to the III Millennium BC, written in Sumerian, is a plate 145 row which contains 15 recipes herbalism. Don’t smile and think about how valuable at the time, the ability to cure diseases 15.
The Babylonians cultural heirs of Sumer, adopted in legacy textbook for storage and collection of medicinal plants, a description of the properties of more than one hundred medicinal herbs, mentioned in the manuscripts. Medicinal herbs at the same time in China, Tibet, India, has been successfully used for treatment. Dated in 3216 BC, the herbalist, the author of the Emperor of China, a description is given of more than 1500 medicinal plants. In the VI century BC from Egypt herbal medicine traveled to Greece. In Greece, the methods of treating disease herbs called the herbal medicine . from the Greek words for plant, phyton, treatment – therapeia.
The founder of scientific medicine Hippocrates (lat. Hippocrates, the Greek. Hippocrates 460-370 BCE) believed all diseases are the consequence of the adverse effects of external sredina person. In the book Corpus Hippocraricum Hippocrates described 236 medicinal plants, methods of treating disease herbs, the basic principles of healing, formulated the moral principles of the doctor, now known as the Hippocratic oath. Medicinal herbs according to Hippocrates contain perfectly balanced by nature nutrients, so herbs should be used only in its original raw form.
The influence of the Greeks has pushed the development of medicine of Ancient Rome, Pliny the elder in the book the Natural history described about 1,000 medicinal herbs. Ancient scientist Dioscorides (I century BC) which consisted in the Roman army physician, in his book Materia medica (Medicinal substances) summed up the experience of Babylonian, Sumerian, Egyptian medicine, described methods of preparation of medicines, has described more than 600 medicinal herbs, the book provided detailed drawings, and pointed out where various herbs, gave information about the chemical processes such as distillation, sublimation. The book was the most authoritative guide for physicians all over Europe until the XVI century.
Naturalist and physician Galen (130 – 200 ad) a well-deserved fame receives two written herbalist, in which the description of more than 300 herbal medicines. Rejecting the views of Hippocrates, Galen argued that medicinal plants along with nutrients contain unnecessary and sometimes harmful components, recommends the extract of healing herbs only the desired substances, using them in such dosage forms as decoctions, extracts, infusions. Galen describes the production of herbs, powders, pills, liniments, mustard plasters, plasters. Methods of Galen to the nineteenth century and was used in medical practice, and so-called Herbal drugs are used and at the present time.
In Russia for the treatment of diseases used fresh herbs or juices, according to the theory of Hippocrates. Popular mixture of honey and juice considered a panacea for all illnesses. During the reign of Ivan the terrible created the Apothecary’s hut . responsible for collecting medicinal herbs on the territory of Russia. Along with local herbs imported plants from Greece, Persia, and India. For the first time in the history was introduced the state monopoly on trade and manufacture of medicinal products have been established a green bench . besides trade, the drugs they gave advice on the treatment of diseases. Under Peter I in Russia was established Apothecary order . where included in the service of snitzel herbs . medicinal herbs were grown in kitchen gardens Apothecary widely deployed across the country. The famous Botanical garden in our day housed in the former St. Petersburg pharmaceutical garden .
From the nineteenth to the twentieth century harvesting of medicinal plants has passed to the pharmaceutical firms, enterprising merchants in addition to trade in Russia exported medicinal herbs in Europe, even in Australia, America. Russia is concerned with the development of the domestic pharmaceutical industry in the period of world war I, lacked the of imported drugs, studies were taken up in many laboratories for the identification of substitutes for imported raw materials.
A sharp rise in phytotherapy experienced during the Great Patriotic war, when the collection of medicinal plants has become a matter of defense, the grass had been harvested by the population for assistance to the front line, intensive research work on medicinal plants, some folk remedies have been re-opened. By 1945, gathered more than 100 species of plants from which manufactured medicines.
Then for decades the success of pharmacology phytotherapy has led almost to oblivion, the great minds have made in the first place-hyped one-sided principle of Galen binding active substances of plants for therapeutic effect, ignorance of travnic ridiculed, extolled to the skies the synthetic drugs. But today the process is reversed, take herbs recommended by doctors, as an auxiliary method of treatment.
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